August 2023

Columnar Basalt and its Causes

Overview In volcanic rocks, such as lava flowing from basaltic lavas or ignimbrites formed from condensed volcanic ash, shrinkage fractures or cooling fractures form regularly as the rock cools and contracts, giving the rocks separated by the fractures an elongated columnar shape with a cross-section of four to six angles. They vary in diameter from …

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Bioluminescence phenomenon and causes

Bioluminescence refers to the phenomenon of organisms producing light through chemical processes, and organisms that have organs capable of producing light themselves are called luminescent organisms. It is widely distributed across a wide range of organisms, including marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as fungi, bacteria, and terrestrial invertebrates. Bioluminescence is a biochemical process in …

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