Characteristics and sources of tornadoes

What is a tornado Tornadoes are powerful whirlwinds that occur primarily during the summer months in warmer regions of the United States, Europe, and Northeast Asia. Generated primarily from cumulonimbus clouds, these winds are often accompanied by thunderstorms, sometimes with hail. Unlike typical whirlwinds, tornadoes are incredibly large, sometimes reaching hundreds of metres in diameter. …

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Desertification

Desertification and its causes

According to Article 1 of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, desertification is the degradation of land in arid, semi-arid and semi-humid regions caused by climate change and human activities such as overgrazing, overcultivation and overharvesting of forests. In the case of the Sahara Desert in Africa, the desert is gradually expanding into southern …

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Sources and components of hot springs

Definition. A spring in which groundwater is warmed above average temperatures by geothermal forces and dissolves to the surface. Opening Hot spring water rises to the surface from deep underground along faults and fractures, such as regular fractures in igneous rocks, some of which are direct surface discharges, while others are horizontally distributed within shallow …

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Lunar eclipses and their causes

Lunar Eclipses A lunar eclipse is a phenomenon that occurs when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon, or Sun-Earth-Moon, and only occurs during a full moon. However, it does not always occur on the full moon each month. This is because the ecliptic plane, the plane of the Moon’s orbit, is tilted …

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Columnar Basalt and its Causes

Overview In volcanic rocks, such as lava flowing from basaltic lavas or ignimbrites formed from condensed volcanic ash, shrinkage fractures or cooling fractures form regularly as the rock cools and contracts, giving the rocks separated by the fractures an elongated columnar shape with a cross-section of four to six angles. They vary in diameter from …

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